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Index of artists

Numbers in italics indicate plates

ALLEGRAIN, ETIENNE

Born 1644 in Paris, died there 1736. From 1677 member of the Academy. Worked in Paris. Was strongly influenced by F. Millet. Landscape painter.

ARCAMBOT, PIERRE

Born 1914 at Brou. A self-taught artist. Exhibited at the Salon d'Automne, Salon des Independents and Salon des Artistes Francois. Paints landscapes and scenes in the Primitiv-ist manner.

AUBRY, ETIENNE

Born 1745 at Versailles, died there 1781. Pupil of J. Silvestre and J. Vien. From 1775 member of the Academy. Worked in Paris. Painted portraits, historical and genre scenes. 57

AVED, JACQUES ANDRE JOSEPH

Born 1702 at Douai, died 1766 in Paris. Studied in Amsterdam under the engraver B.Picart and in Paris under the portraitist S. Belle. Was influenced by Chardin. Worked in Paris. Portrait painter. 58

BASTIEN-LEPAGE, JULES

Born 1848 at Damvillers, died 1884 in Paris. Studied under Cabanel at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Worked in Paris. In 1870 took part in the Franco-Prussian war as a franc-tireur. At the end of his life visited Italy and Algaria. Painted almost exclusively rustic genre scenes. 140

BENOIST, PHILIPPE

Born 1813 in Geneva, date and place of death unknown. Worked in France. Exhibited at the Paris Salons from 1836 to 1879. Painted urban and architectural landscapes. Also known as a lithographer.

BESNARD, ALBERT PAUL

Born 1849 in Paris, died there 1934. Studied under J.-F. Bre-mond, then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under A. Cabanel. Was to a certain extent influenced by Impressionism. Most of his pictures are historical and mythological compositions; he also painted portraits.

BLANCHARD, LAURENT

Born 1762 in Valence, died 1819 in Paris. From 1791 to 1799 lived in Rome, later worked in Paris. Exhibited at the Salon from 1804. Painted pictures on religious and mythological themes, as well as portraits.

BLANCHE, JACQUES EMILE

Born 1861 in Paris, died 1942 at Offranville. Trained under H. Gervex, studied extensively the work of Whistler and Manet. Exhibited at the Salon de la Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts. Painted mainly portraits and genre scenes. Created a gallery of portraits of contemporary English and French cultural figures. Painted extensively pastels, made lithographs. Art critic and novelist. 142

BOILLY, LOUIS LEOPOLD

Born 1761 at La Bassee, died 1845 in Paris. Painter, miniaturist and lithographer. Pupil of his father, a woodcarver. From 1784 lived in Paris. From 1791 exhibited at the Salon. Painted genre scenes and portraits. 78, 19

BONHEUR, ROSA

Born 1822 in Bordeaux, died 1899 in By (Seine-et-Marne). Studied under her father, the landscape painter R. Bonheur, then under L. Cogniet. Animal painter.

BONNARD, PIERRE

Born 1867 at Fontenay-aux-Roses (Seine), died 1947 at Le Can-net. A pupil of G. Boulanger and J. Lefebvre at the Academic Julian. Took part in the "Nabi" movement together with Denis and Vuillard. Did drawings and posters, illustrated books

and designed stage scenery. A painter of mural decorations, portraits, still lifes, landscapes and interiors enlivened with figures. 215Ч218

BONNAT, LEON JOSEPH FLORENTIN

Born 1833 at Bayonne, died 1922 at Mouchy-Saint-Eloi (Oise). Received his first training in Madrid, later studied under L. Cogniet in Paris. From 1859 exhibited at the Salon. Painted historical and religious subjects and portraits. In 1870 made a trip to the Orient. 735

BOUCHER, FRANCOIS

Born 1703 in Paris, died there 1770. Painter and engraver. Studied painting under F. Lemoine and engraving under J.-F. Cars. From 1727 to 1731 lived in Italy where he was influenced by Castiglione and Tiepolo. On his return to France worked in Paris. From 1734 member of the Academy, from 1765 its director and the Court Painter. Worked in all genres of painting, made tapestry designs, and illustrated books. 45Ч49

BOUDIN, EUGENE

Born 1824 at Honfleur, died 1898 at Deauville. Studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Was strongly influenced by the painters of the Barbizon School (Troyon and Millet), as well as by Corot and Jongkind. One of the outstanding landscape painters of the nineteenth century, he was a direct precursor of Impressionism. Painted landscapes on the shores of Normandy and Brittany. 145

BOULLOGNE THE YOUNGER, LOUIS

Born 1654 in Paris, died there 1733. Pupil of his father, Louis Boullogne the Elder, he worked in Paris, at Versailles, Fon-tainebleau and Chantilly. From 1681 member of the Academy, from 1722 its director, from 1725 Premier peintre du Roi. Painted historical, mythological and religious scenes. Also known as the author of large-size decorative paintings. 11

BOURDON, SEBASTIEN

Born 1616 at Montpellier, died 1671 in Paris. Was trained in Paris under J. Barthelemy. From 1634 lived in Italy where he was influenced by Poussin and Caravaggio. In 1637 returned to France and worked in Paris, Bordeaux and Montpellier. One of the founder members of the Academy in 1648. Between 1652 and 1654 worked in Stockholm. Painted historical pictures, portraits and genre scenes. 12

BOZE, JOSEPH

Born 1744 in Martigues (Provence), died 1826 in Paris. Pupil of M. Q. Latour. Worked in Paris. Portrait painter, also known as a pastel painter and miniaturist.

BRAQUE, GEORGES

Born 1882 at Argenteuil, died 1963 in Paris. Trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts at Le Havre and in 1902 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, in the class of Bonnat. In 1905Ч7 was one of the Fauves, in 1908 associated with Picasso and the Cubists. Painted landscapes and still lifes, illustrated books and executed stage designs. 267

BRASCASSAT, JACQUES RAYMOND

Born 1804 in Bordeaux, diad 1867 in Paris. Pupil of T. Richard, his foster father, and L. Hersent. Traveled through Italy from 1827 to 1835, sending his pictures painted there to the Salon. Member of the Academy from 1846. Landscapist and animal painter.

BRETON, JULES

Born 1827 in Courrieres (Pas-de-Calais), died 1906 in Paris. Studied first under F. de Vigne, then under Wappers and M. Drolling. Was influenced by G. Courbet. Painted mostly scenes from peasant life.

BRUANDET, LAZARE

Born 1755 in Paris, died there 1804. Pupil of M. Roeser and F. Sarrazin. Worked in Paris and its environs. Landscape painter, also known as an engraver.

CABANEL, ALEXANDRE

Born 1823 at Montpellier, died 1889 in Paris. Pupil of F. Picot. Worked in Paris and in Italy (1845Ч50). From 1844 exhibited at the Salon. Took part in the decoration of the Pantheon in Paris. Painted historical compositions and portraits. 137

CAROLUS-DURAN, EMILE AUGUSTE

Born 1838 in Lille, died 1917 in Paris. Studied at the Acade-mie Suisse. Visited St Petersburg in 1876. Worked in Paris. Painted mostly portraits, historical and religious compositions.

CARRIERE, EUGENE

Born 1849 at Gournay, died 1906 in Paris. A pupil of Cabanel, he exhibited at the Salon from 1876. Painted genre pictures and portraits, for the most part of women and children. Was also active as a draughtsman. 211

CARRIERE-BELLEUSE, PIERRE

Born 1851 in Paris, died there 1933. Studied under his father, A. E. Carriere-Belleuse, and A. Cabanel. Worked for the Sevres porcelain factory. Painted in oils and pastels, mostly landscapes, genre scenes and portraits.

CAZIN, JEAN CHARLES

Born 1841 in Samer (Pas-de-Calais), died 1901 in Lavandou (Var). Studied drawing in Paris under Lecoq de Boisbaudran. Was influenced by J.-F. Millet. Painted genre scenes, landscapes, historical and religious compositions.

CEZANNE, PAUL

Born 1839 at Aix-en-Provence, died there 1906. Attended the College Bourbon with Zola. In 1862 came to Paris and studied at the Academie Suisse. From 1872 to 1874 worked at Auvers and was influenced by the Impressionists, Pissarro in particular. Took part in several Impressionist exhibitions. In 1888Ч 1900 worked at L'Estaque. Painted portraits, landscapes, figure compositions and still lifes. 174Ч184

CHAPLIN, CHARLES

Born 1825 in Andelys, died 1891 in Paris. Studied under M. Drolling at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts from 1841. Painted portraits, landscapes, religious compositions and genre scenes. Later worked as a decorative painter. Also known for his drawings and lithographs.

CHARDIN, JEAN-BAPTISTE SIMEON

Born 1699 in Paris, died there 1779. Pupil of the historical painter P. Cazes and N. Coypel. Worked in Paris. From 1728 member of the Academy. Painted still lifes and genre scenes. In his late years produced portraits in pastel. 51, 52

CHARLET, NICOLAS TOUSSAINT

Born 1792 in Paris, died there 1845. Pupil of A. Gros. Worked in Paris. Painted battle scenes. Also known as an illustrator and lithographer.

CHARPENTIER, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1728 in Paris, died there 1806. Worked in Paris. Was influenced by J.-B. Greuze. Painted portraits and genre scenes.

CHERON, ELISABETH SOPHIE

Born 1648 in Paris, died there 1711. Pupil of her father, A. Che-ron. Worked in Paris. From 1672 member of the Academy. Painted portraits and pictures on religious subjects. Worked as a miniaturist and engraver. Author of the Livre de prlnclpes a dessiner, published in Paris in 1706. 29

CORNEILLE DE LYON

Born between 1500 and 1510 in The Hague, died around 1575 in Lyons. In the early 1530s worked in Lyons. From 1564, Peintre du Rol. Painted portraits, was a master of the miniature portrait.

COROT, JEAN-BAPTISTE CAMILLE

Born 1796 in Paris, died there 1875. Painter and draughtsman. Pupil of E. Michallon and V. Bertin, the classicizing landscape painters. Worked in Paris and in Italy (1825Ч28, 1834 and 1843). Traveled widely in France, visited Switzerland, Holland and London. From 1827 exhibited at the Salon. Painted landscapes, portraits and one-figure compositions. 109Ч113

CORTES, EDOUARD LEON

Born at Lagny. Dates of birth and death unknown. Painted scenes of Paris life, landscapes and views of Brittany. Exhibited at different salons, including the Salon des Independants.

COTTET, CHARLES

Born 1863 in Le Puy, died 1925 in Paris. Studied under A. F. Roll at the Academie Julian. Worked in Brittany and from 1884 to 1888 in Holland. Visited Algiers in 1892 and Egypt in 1896. Painted mostly landscapes and scenes from the life of Breton fishermen. 143

COURBET, GUSTAVE

Born 1819 at Ornans (Doubs), died 1877 at La Tour-de-Peilz, Switzerland. In 1840 settled in Paris. Made copies of old Spanish, Dutch and Flemish masters in The Louvre. Worked in Paris, at Ornans, in the south of France and in Normandy. From 1844 exhibited regularly at the Salon. In 1855 had a one-man exhibition and wrote for it a catalogue in which he expressed his views on realism in painting. Worked and exhibited in Germany (1853, 1858, 1869 and 1872) and in Belgium (1861). Active supporter of the Paris Commune. After its defeat went into exile to Switzerland (1873), where he died. Painted scenes from everyday life, portraits, landscapes and still lifes. 131Ч133

COURTOIS, JACQUES (called LE BOURGUIGNON)

Born 1621 in Saint-Hippolyte (Doubs), died 1676 in Rome. Painted battle scenes and religious compositions.

COUTURE, THOMAS

Born 1815 at Senlis (Oise), died 1879 at Villiers-Ie-Bel (Val-d'Oise). Pupil of Gros, later of Delaroche. From 1840 exhibited at the Salon. Master of historical compositions (Romans of the Decadence, 1847, in The Louvre). Painted genre scenes and portraits. Also worked as a mural painter (frescoes in the Saint-Eustache Cathedral in Paris). 139

COUTURIER, LEON PHILIBERT

Born 1823 in Chalon-sur-Saone, died 1901 in Saint-Quentin. Studied under C. Couturier and F. E. Picot. Worked in Paris and Saint-Quentin. Painted landscapes, animals and still lifes.

COYPEL, CHARLES ANTOINE

Born 1661 in Paris, died there 1722. Pupil of his father, N. Coy-pel. From 1680 Court Painter to the Duke of Orleans. Elected to the Academy in 1681; was a professor at the Academy from 1692 and its director from 1714. Painted religious and historical compositions, as well as portraits. Did decorative work and produced cartoons for the Gobelin factory.

COYPEL, NOEL

Born 1628 in Paris, died there 1707. Pupil of N. Quillerier. Worked in Paris. Member of the Academy from 1663. From 1672 director of the Academie de France in Rome, director of the Academy in Paris from 1695 to 1699. Painted pictures on biblical and mythological themes. Carried out several decorative projects in Versailles, the Tuileries, the Palais Royal and others.

CROSS, HENRI EDMOND

Born 1856 at Douai, died 1910 at Saint-CIair (Var). Trained first at the Academy in Lille; later, from 1876, under F. Bon-vin in Paris. From 1881 exhibited at the Salon. Worked in Paris, Provence and Italy (1904Ч8). Was influenced by Seurat, Signac and Denis. Tended towards Neo-Impressionism. Painted almost exclusively landscapes. 207

DAEL, JEAN FRANQOIS VAN

Born 1764 in Antwerp, died 1840 in Paris. Studied at the Antwerp Academy. From 1766 worked in Paris. Did decorative work in the castles of Bellevue, Chantilly and Saint-Cloud. Painted flowers and fruits.

DAGNAN-BOUVERET, PASCAL ADOLPHE JEAN

Born 1852 in Paris, died 1929 at Quincey (Haute-Saone). Pupil of Gerome. Author of genre pictures (mainly from the life of Breton fishermen) and portraits. 136

DAUBIGNY, CHARLES FRANCOIS

Born 1817 in Paris, died there 1878. Painter, lithographer, engraver and book illustrator. Pupil of his father, E. F. Dau-bigny, and of P. Delaroche. Subsequently was influenced by the Barbizon School. Worked mostly near Paris. From 1838 exhibited at the Salon. In 1835 went to Italy; visited England (1866Ч67), Spain (1868), and Holland (1869). Painted landscapes. 725Ч128

DAVID, JACQUES LOUIS

Born 1748 in Paris, died 1825 in Brussels. Studied at the Academy under J. Vien. Worked in Paris, Rome (1775Ч80 and 1784Ч85) and Brussels (1816Ч25). From 1783 member of the Academy. An active participant in the French Revolution. In the years of the Consulate and of the Empire was Court Painter to Napoleon. From 1816, after the Bourbons returned to power, lived in exile in Belgium. Historical painter and portraitist. 81, 82

DEBUCOURT, PHILIBERT LOUIS

Born 1755 in Paris, died there 1832. Painter, draughtsman and engraver. Pupil of J. Vien. Worked in Paris, exhibited at the Salons of 1783, 1785 and 1814. From 1785 concentrated on drawing with colored aquatint which he brought to perfection. After 1800 gave up engraving original works and turned to etchings of fashion pictures and of caricatures drawn by Carle Vernet. 72

DECAMPS, ALEXANDRE GABRIEL

Born 1803 in Paris, died 1860 at Fontainebleau. Painter, lithographer and engraver. Worked in Paris. In 1827 began to exhibit at the Salon. In the same year undertook a trip to Asia Minor and Constantinople, which played an important role in his artistic development. Painted historical and genre pictures, pre-eminently on Oriental themes, as well as hunting scenes and landscapes. 101, 102

DEDREUX, ALFRED ї

Born 1810 in Paris, died there 1860. Pupil of L. Cogniet. Exhibited at the Salon from 1831 and at the Royal Academy in London in 1850Ч51. Painted genre scenes and animals.

DE GALLARD, MICHEL

Born 1921 in Villefranche-de-1'Allier. Studied medicine; later turned to art. Paints views of Paris suburbs and the countryside.

DEGAS, EDGAR

Born 1834 in Paris, died there 1917. A pupil of Louis Lamothe. Spent several years in Italy; in 1857 returned to Paris and there began to work as a painter. At the outset of his artistic career painted portraits, but from the 1870s on turned for his subjects to ballet dancers, horse races and cafe-concerts. After 1890, at the end of his life, worked in pastel and began to sculpt. 169Ч172

DELACROIX, EUGENE

Born 1798 at Charenton-le-Pont (Saint-Maurice), died 1863 in Paris. Painter and lithographer. Pupil of P. N. Guerin. Worked in Paris. In 1825 visited England, in 1832 North Africa and Spain. From 1822 to 1859 exhibited at the Salon. From 1857 member of the French Institute. Worked in all genres of painting. His principal decorations are murals of the Paris Town Hall, the ceilings of the Salle d'Apollon in The Louvre and in the Luxembourg Palace, as well as works in the Libraries of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. 99

DELAROCHE, PAUL (HIPPOLYTE)

Born 1797 in Paris, died there 1856. Pupil of L. Watelet and A. J. Gros. Worked in Paris and Nice. From 1819 exhibited at the Salon. In 1834Ч35 and 1843 lived in Italy. From 1832 member of the French Institute. Portraitist and costume-history painter. 107, 108

DE MACHY, PIERRE ANTOINE

Born 1723 in Paris, died there 1807. Studied under J. Servan-doni. Was influenced by H. Robert. Worked in Paris. From 1753 member of the Academy, from 1786 Professor of Perspective. Painted almost exclusively architectural views. 73

DE MARNE, JEAN-LOUIS

Born 1752 at Brussels, died 1829 in Paris. From 1765 lived in Paris. Studied under G. Briard. Was influenced by Dujar-din and Berchem, Dutch animal painters. Painted landscapes, animals and scenes of rural life. 89

DENIS, MAURICE

Born 1870 at Granville (Manche), died 1943 at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. From 1888 was trained at the Academie Julian under J. Lefebvre and later at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1897Ч98 worked in Florence; in 1898Ч1904 in Rome. From 1890 took part in exhibitions. Elaborated "Nabi" theories. Painted pictures on religious and mythological subjects. Produced a large number of mural decorations and lithographs. A prolific writer on art. Experimented with carpet designs, painted cartoons for stained-glass and mosaic panels, and ornamented ceramics. 219, 220

DERAIN, ANDRE

Born 1880 at Chatou, died 1954 at Garches. Studied at the Academie Carriere; in 1901Ч2 worked with Vlaminck at Chatou (the so-called Chatou School) and in 1905 with Matisse at Collioure. Exhibited at the Salon des Independents and at the Salon d'Automne, together with the Fauves whose views he shared at that time (1905Ч6). From 1907 to 1914 was attracted by Cubism. Was influenced by French Gothic art. Painted landscapes, portraits, still lifes and figure compositions. Designed stage sets, illustrated numerous books, worked as ceramist and sculptor. 269Ч274

D'ESPAGNAT, GEORGES

Born 1870 at Melun, died 1950 in Paris. Trained at the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From 1892 took part in exhibitions. Visited Spain, Portugal, Morocco, England, Holland and Germany. Was influenced by the Neo-Impressionists and Bonnard. Painted pictures and murals. 206

DESPORTES, FRANQOIS

Born 1661 at Champigneulles, died 1743 in Paris. Studied in Paris under the Flemish animal painter Nicassius. Worked in Paris. Visited Poland (1695Ч96) and London (1712). Painted hunting scenes, still lifes and portraits. Made cartoons for the Gobelin factory. 40

DETHOMAS, MAXIME

Born 1869 in Garges-les-Gonesse, died 1929 in Paris. Studied at the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs in Paris, then under E. Carriere. Painted scenes from everyday life and worked in the fields of monumental and decorative painting. Also known for his drawings. Was influenced by Toulouse-Lautrec.

DIAZ DE LA PENA, NARCISSE VIRGILE

Born 1807 at Bordeaux, died 1876 at Menton. Painter and lithographer. Pupil of F. Souchon and X. Sigalon. Was strongly influenced by Correggio, Prud'hon and Delacroix. Worked in Paris and in its suburbs. From 1831 to 1859 exhibited at the Salon. One of the leading figures of the Barbizon School. At the outset of his career painted scenes with mythological or Oriental characters on a landscape background. 118Ч727

DROLLING, MARTIN

Born 1752 in Oberbergheim near Kolmar, died 1817 in Paris. Worked in Paris from the 1770s. Exhibited at the Salon from 1793. Painted genre scenes and portraits.

DROUAIS THE ELDER, HUBERT

Born 1699 in La Roeque (Normandy), died 1767 in Paris. Moved to Paris around 1717 where he studied under F. de Troy. Worked in Paris. Member of the Academy from 1730. Exhibited at the Salon from 1737. Painted portraits and miniatures.

DROUAIS THE YOUNGER, FRANCOIS HUBERT

Born 1727 in Paris, died there 1775. Studied under his father Hubert Drouais, attended the studios of Carle Vanloo, Natoire and Boucher. In 1755 first exhibited at the Salon. From 1758 member of the Academy. Portrait painter. 64

DUFRENOY, GEORGES

Born 1870 at Thiais, died 1944 in Paris. Received his artistic training at the Academie Julian and in the studio of decorative painting of D. Laugee. From 1904 exhibited at the Salon des Independents and the Salon d'Automne. Painted views of Paris, Venice and Brussels in an Impressionistic vein. In 1912 executed murals in the chapel of St Pancras and in the Chateau des Pradines. Illustrated Flaubert. 208

DUFY, RAOUL

Born 1877 at Le Havre, died 1953 at Forcalquier. From 1892 attended Lhuillier's drawing classes at the Ecole Municipale des Beaux-Arts at Le Havre. In 1900 moved to Paris and there enrolled in Bonnat's class at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Visited Spain, Morocco, the USA, England and Germany. Executed landscapes, genre scenes and portraits. Painted interiors and produced stage decors. Illustrated books and created designs for textiles and ceramics. 280

DUGHET, GASPARD (called GASPARD POUSSIN)

Born 1615 in Rome, died there 1675. Pupil of Poussin. Worked mostly in Rome, and also at Perugia, Florence and Naples. Landscape painter. 10

DUMONT, JACQUES

(called DUMONT THE ROMAN)

Born 1701 in Paris, died there 1781. Studied under the landscape painter L. Lebel. Worked in Paris and in Italy. From 1728 member of the Academy, from 1763 its director. Exhibited at the Salon from 1737 to 1761. Painted religious, historical and allegorical pictures and genre scenes. 62

DUPLESSIS, JOSEPH SIFFRED

Born 1725 at Carpentras, died 1802 at Versailles. From 1745 to 1749 studied under P. Subleyras in Rome. Worked in Paris and at Versailles. Painted portraits. 70

DUPLESSIS, MICHEL

Born in Versailles. Dates of birth and death unknown. Pupil of a Rouen painter, J.-B. Descamps. Exhibited at the Salon between 1791 and 1799. Painted landscapes.

DUPRE, JULES

Born 1811 at Nantes, died 1889 at Isle-Adam (Val-d'Oise). Painter and lithographer. Came to Paris in the late 1820s. Copied landscapes by the Old Masters in The Louvre. In the early 1830s visited England where he was influenced by Con-

stable. In 1831 began to exhibit at the Salon. Worked in various provinces of France. Like Th. Rousseau, was one of the main figures of the Barbizon School. 116, 117

DUPRESSOIR. FRANCOIS JOSEPH

Born 1800 in Paris, died there 1859. Did decorative painting on porcelain. In the 1830s turned to watercolor and oil painting. Landscape painter, also known as a lithographer.

FALCONET, PIERRE-ETIENNE

Born 1741 in Paris, died there 1791. Son of the sculptor E. M. Falconet. From 1773 lived in England where he studied under J. Reynolds. In 1773Ч77 was in St Petersburg with his father. Painted mostly portraits.

FANTIN-LATOUR, HENRI

Born 1836 in Grenoble, died 1904 in Bure. Studied under his father, T. Fantin-Latour, then under Lecoq de Boisbaudran and G. Courbet. Worked in Paris, visited England several times. Painted pictures on allegorical and fantastic themes, as well as still lifes and portraits.

FAVANNE, HENRI ANTOINE

Born 1668 in London, died 1752 in Paris. Moved to Paris in 1687. Studied under R. Houasse. From 1693 to 1700 worked in Italy, from 1704 to 1714 in Spain. In 1717 did the decorative painting of St Paul's Cathedral in London. Subsequently worked in Paris and Versailles. From 1748 rector of the Academy. Painted pictures on biblical and mythological subjects.

FORAIN, JEAN-LOUIS

Born 1852 at Rheims, died 1931 in Paris. A pupil of Gerome at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Was influenced by Manet and Degas. Took part in several Impressionist exhibitions. Painted scenes of contemporary daily life. Worked as a draughtsman and lithographer. 773

FOUGERON, ANDRE

Born 1913 in Paris. A metal-worker by profession, he studied painting on his own. In 1938 executed the fresco Circus for the students' sanatorium at Saint-Hilaire-du-Touvet. In 1939 joined the French Communist Party. In 1940, after escaping from the prisoners' camp, took an active part in the French Resistance movement. In 1942 was elected Secretary-General of the National Front of the Arts. In 1944 contributed to the publication an album of lithographs, To Win, and was a co-founder of the Salon de la Liberation. From 1946 to 1950 was Secretary-General of the Union of Plastic Arts. Traveled widely and had exhibitions in European countries. 281

FRAGONARD, JEAN HONORE

Born 1732 at Grasse, died 1806 in Paris. Pupil of Chardin, Boucher and C. Vanloo. During 1756Ч61 worked at the French Academy in Rome. In 1765 first exhibited at the Salon. In 1773Ч74 visited Italy for the second time. From 1793 was Keeper of the Museum of Arts (The Louvre). Painted genre scenes, fetes ga-lantes, pictures on mythological subjects, landscapes and portraits. 65, 66

FRANQUE, JOSEPH

Born 1774 in Buis-les-Baronnies (Drome), died 1833 in Paris. Pupil of L. David. Worked in Paris. Painted altarpieces, battle and historical scenes, as well as portraits. Also known as a lithographer.

FRIESZ, EMILE OTHON

Born 1879 at Le Havre, died 1949 in Paris. Trained under Ch. Lhuillier at Le Havre, then under L. Bonnat at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1904, stimulated by the work of Matisse, joined up with the Fauves. Was influenced by the Impressionists and Cezanne. In 1908 visited Antwerp with Braque; in 1909 Munich with Dufy. Made trips to Italy and Portugal. Exhibited at the Salon des Independants (1903)

and the Salon d'Automne (from 1904). One of the founders of the Salon des Tuileries. Easel and mural painter, illustrator and ceramist. 246

FROMENTIN, EUGENE

Born 1820 at La Rochelle, died 1876 at Saint-Maurice. Trained under Remond and L. Cabat. Worked in Paris and Algeria (which he visited more than once after 1846). From 1847 exhibited at the Salon. A friend of G. Moreau and George Sand. After a trip to Holland and Belgium in 1875 wrote Les Mai-tres d'autrefois. Painter, art critic and writer. 134

GAUGUIN, PAUL

Born 1848 in Paris, died 1903 on the island of Dominique in the Marquesas Archipelago. From 1865 to 1871 served in the merchant marine, then was a clerk to a stockbroker. Began to paint and bought pictures by the Impressionists, whom he knew through Pissarro. Exhibited at the Salon in 1876. In January 1883 decided to paint "every day" and abandoned his post and family life. In 1886 was in Brittany, at Pont-Aven, where he formulated his Pont-Aven program. In 1887 spent some time in Martinique; on his return to Paris in 1888 met Van Gogh with whom he worked for a while at Aries. In 1891, charged with a mission, left for Tahiti. Returning to Paris in 1893, exhibited his Tahitian pictures without success and went back to Tahiti, where he produced the major part of his works, then to the island of Dominique (Iva-Hoa). In 1897 illustrated with his woodcuts his diary Noa Noa, and later his Cahier pour Aline and Avant et apres. Contributed articles to Les Guepes and Le Sourire, and published the latter periodical on the island of Dominique. Painted landscapes, still lifes, portraits and scenes of Tahitian life. Was also active as a sculptor, draughtsman and ceramist. 192Ч202

GERARD, FRANCOIS

Born 1770 in Rome, died 1837 in Paris. Painter and draughtsman. Pupil of David. From 1795 exhibited at the Salon. Worked in Paris. Painted pictures on historical subjects and portraits, illustrated books. 93

GERARD, MARGUERITE

Born 1761 at Grasse, died 1837 in Paris. Genre painter, miniaturist and book illustrator. Pupil of Fragonard. Worked in Paris. From 1799 to 1824 exhibited at the Salon. 86

GERICAULT, THEODORE

Born 1791 at Rouen, died 1824 in Paris. Painter, draughtsman, sculptor and lithographer. Pupil of C. Vernet and P. N. Gue-rin. Worked in Paris. From 1812 exhibited at the Salon. In 1816Ч17 visited Italy, in 1820 England. 98

GER6ME, JEAN-LEON

Born 1824 at Vesoul, died 1904 in Paris. Trained under P. De-laroche and Ch. Gleyre. From 1841 worked in Paris, in 1847 first exhibited at the Salon. In 1855 visited Russia. Traveled in Italy, Turkey and Egypt. Painted pictures on historical subjects, genre scenes and landscapes. During the last years of his life tried his hand at sculpture. 138

GORP, HENRI NICOLAS VAN

Born 1756 in Paris. Date of death unknown. Pupil of L. Boilly. Worked in Paris. Exhibited at the Salon from 1793 to 1819. Painted portraits and genre scenes.

GRANET, FRANCOIS MARIUS

Born 1775 at Aix, died there 1849. Studied under J. S. Constan-tin and David. Worked in Paris and in Italy (from 1802 to 1819 and from 1822 to 1825). From 1799 to 1847 exhibited at the Salon. In 1826 became Keeper of The Louvre, from 1830 to 1848 was Keeper of the picture gallery at Versailles. Painted pictures on historical subjects, landscapes and church interiors. 97

GREUZE, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1725 at Tournus, died 1805 in Paris. Pupil of the Lyonese painter Ch. Grandon. From 1750 worked in Paris. In 1755Ч56

visited Francastel in Italy. In 1767 was elected to the Academy. Painted genre scenes and portraits. 67Ч69

GRIMOU, ALEXIS

Born 1678 in Argenteuil, died 1733 in Paris. Worked in Paris. Painted portraits and genre scenes.

GROS, ANTOINE JEAN

Born 1771 in Paris, died 1835 at Meudon. Pupil of David. From 1793 to 1801 lived in Italy. Worked in Paris. Painted historical and battle scenes, and portraits. 91

GUDIN, THEODORE

Born 1802 in Paris, died 1880 in Boulogne (Hauts-de-Seine), studied under A. L. Girodet-Trioson. Lived in Algeria from 1830 to 1839. Visited London several times. In 1841 worked in Warsaw and St Petersburg. Exhibited at the Salon from 1822, later at the Royal Academy in London. Landscape painter, also known as a lithographer and engraver.

GUERIN, CHARLES

Born 1875 at Sens, died 1939 in Paris. A pupil of Moreau at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Was influenced by Monti-celli, the Impressionists and Cezanne. Later tended to Fauvism. Was active as a painter, lithographer and stage designer. Painted religious subjects, genre scenes and landscapes. 209

GUERIN, PIERRE NARCISSE

Born 1774 in Paris, died 1833 in Rome. A pupil of N. J. Brenet and J.-B. Regnault. Was strongly influenced by David. In 1800Ч2 lived in Italy as a holder of the Prix de Rome. From 1822 to 1828 director of the French Academy in Rome. Painted pictures on historical and mythological subjects. 95, 96

GUILLAUMET, GUSTAVE

Born 1840 in Paris, died there 1887. Studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under F. E. Picot. Painted Algerian and Sahara landscapes and genre compositions.

GUILLAUMIN, ARMAND

Born 1841 in Paris, died there 1927. Studied privately under various artists, then in 1864 entered the Academic Suisse, where he met Cezanne and Pissarro. Was influenced by the Impressionists and the Fauvists. His output consists mainly of views of the banks of the Seine, Oise and Creuse as well as marine studies and etchings. 163

GUILLOT, DONAT

Dates of birth and death unknown. First exhibited at the Salon in 1868. Landscape and animal painter.

HARPIGNIES, HENRI

Born 1819 in Valenciennes, died 1916 in Saint-Prive. Pupil of J. Achard. Was influenced by C. Corot. Worked in France and in various French provinces. Exhibited at the Salon from 1852. Landscape painter, also known as a lithographer.

HELLEU, PAUL

Born 1859 at Vannes, died 1927 in Paris. Trained under Gerome at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In the early period of his career was influenced by Manet and by the Impressionists. Was a famous portraitist of the beau monde in Paris and London. Painted the ceiling of one of the railway stations in New York. Draughtsman and writer. 162

HENNER, JEAN-JACQUES

Born 1829 in Bernwiller, died 1905 in Paris. From 1844 studied at Ch. Guerin's school of drawing in Strasbourg, then in Paris under M. Drolling and from 1847 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under F. E. Picot. Lived in Italy for six years from 1858. Painted mostly female nudes against landscape backgrounds and pictures on religious themes.

HERSENT, LOUIS

Born 1777 in Paris, died there 1860. Pupil of J.-B. Regnault. Worked in Paris. Member of the French Institute from 1822, from 1825 professor at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Painted portraits and pictures on historical and literary subjects.

HILAIR, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1751 in Audun-le-Tiche (Moselle), died after 1822. Pupil of J.-B. Le Prince. Worked in Paris. In 1776 made a trip to the Levant, visited the Archipelago and Constantinople. Painted landscapes and genre scenes.

HUET, JEAN-BAPTISTE MARIE

Born 1745 in Paris, died there 1811. Studied under F. Boucher and Ch. Dagomer. Worked in Paris. Animal painter, also known as an engraver.

INGRES, JEAN AUGUSTE DOMINIQUE

Born 1780 at Montauban, died 1867 in Paris. Studied at the Toulouse Academy under G. Roques and J. Briand; from 1797 in Paris under David. Worked in Paris, Rome and Florence. From 1825 member of the French Institute; from 1834 to 1841 director of the French Academy in Rome. Painted portraits and pictures on historical, literary and religious subjects. 103

ISABEY, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1767 at Nancy, died 1855 in Paris. Pupil of David and the miniaturist painter F. Dumont. Worked in Paris. From 1805 was Court Painter to Empress Josephine. 88

ISABEY, EUGENE LOUIS GABRIEL

Born 1803 in Paris, died 1886 at Lagny (Seine-et-Marne). Painter and lithographer. Was trained by his father, the miniaturist J.-B. Isabey. Worked in Paris. From 1824 to 1878 exhibited at the Salon. In 1830 visited Algeria; made several trips to England. Painted landscapes, seascapes and genre scenes. 103Ч105

JACQUES, CHARLES EMILE

Born 1813 in Paris, died there 1894. Self-taught artist; began as a lithographer. First exhibited his etchings at the Salon in 1845, his oil paintings in 1848. Joined the artists of the Bar-bizon School. Worked in Paris and in the environs of Fontaine-bleau. Landscape and animal painter.

JEAURAT, ETIENNE

Born 1699 in Paris, died 1789 in Versailles. Pupil of N. Vleu-ghels. Member of the Academy from 1733. Painted pictures on biblical, mythological and genre themes; was also known as an engraver.

JOURDAIN, FRANCIS

Born 1876 in Paris, died there 1958. Studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts; pupil of E. Carriere and A. Besnard. Landscape painter; also known as a decorator and stage designer. Produced color lithographs.

LABILLE-GUIARD, ADELAIDE

Born 1749 in Paris, died there 1803. Studied under the miniaturist F. Vincent, the pastel painter M. Q. Latour and the painter F. A. Vincent whom she subsequently married. Worked in Paris. Member of the Academy from 1783. From 1785 Court Painter to the daughters of Louis XV. Exhibited at the Salon from 1783 to 1800. Painted portraits.

LACROIX (DELACROIX), called LACROIX DE MARSEILLE, CHARLES FRANCOIS

Born 1700 in Marseilles, died 1782 in Berlin. Studied under J. Vernet. Worked in Rome. Seascape painter.

LAFOSSE, CHARLES DE

Born 1636 in Paris, died there 1716. Studied under Ch. LeBrun, was strongly influenced by Rubens. Worked in Paris, in Italy (1658Ч63) and in London (1689Ч91). From 1673 member of the Academy. Painted pictures on religious and mythological subjects. 25, 26

LAGRENEE, FRANQOIS (ANTHELME)

Born 1774 in Paris, died there 1832. Studied under A. Vincent. Worked in Paris. Visited Russia in the 1820s. Exhibited at the Salon between 1799 and 1831. Painted portraits and miniatures.

LA HYRE, LAURENT DE

Born 1606 in Paris, died there 1656. Studied under his father, E. de La Hyre, and J. Lallemand. Worked in Paris, Saint-Denis and Rouen. Painted pictures on mythological and religious subjects. Executed a series of cartoons for the Gobelin factory. Also known as an engraver.

LA JOUE, JACQUES DE

Born 1686/7 in Paris, died there 1761. Painter, draughtsman and ornamentalist. Worked in Paris. Painted landscapes, hunting scenes, interiors, architectural motifs, etc. 37

LANCRET, NICOLAS

Born 1690 in Paris, died there 1743. A pupil of P. Dublin and Cl. Gillot, he was strongly influenced by Watteau. Worked in Paris. Member of the Academy from 1719, he painted portraits, pastoral scenes, fetes galantes, and illustrated books by French writers. 34Ч36

LARGILLIERE, NICOLAS DE

Born 1656 in Paris, died there 1746. Studied under A. Goe-bouw in Antwerp. During 1674Ч78 worked in London, later in Paris. From 1686 member of the Academy, from 1728 to 1732 its director. Portrait painter. 23

LAURENCIN, MARIE

Born 1885 in Paris, died there 1956. Studied drawing at a private academy. At first was influenced by Toulouse-Lautrec and Manet, then joined up with the Fauves and the Cubists. Painted female portraits, flowerpieces and animal scenes. Made stage decors, fabric and dress designs and tapestry cartoons. From 1906 exhibited at the Salon des Independents and the Salon d'Automne. 252

LEBASQUES, HENRI

Born 1865 at Champigne, died 1937. Studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Angers, from 1886 under L. Bonnat in Paris. Visited England, Spain and Italy. Painted landscapes and compositions in the Impressionist manner.

LEBOURG, ALBERT MARIE

Born 1849 at Monfort-sur-Risle, died 1928 in Rouen. Studied architecture and painting at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Rouen. In 1872Ч75 taught at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Algiers. Took part in several exhibitions of the Impressionists. Best known as a landscape painter.

LE BRUN, CHARLES

Born 1619 in Paris, died there 1690. Studied under F. Perrier and S. Vouet. Worked in Italy from 1642 to 1646 and in Paris. In 1648 was one of the founders of the Academy. In 1662 became Premier peintre du Roi, in 1668 director of the Gobelin factory. Painted pictures on religious, historical and mythological subjects as well as portraits. Decorated the Galerie des Glaces and other rooms at Versailles. 75, 16

LEDOUX, JEANNE PHILIBERTE

Born 1767 in Paris, died there 1840. Studied under J.-B. Greuze. Worked in Paris. Exhibited at the Salon from 1793 to 1819.

LEFEVRE, ROBERT

Born 1755 in Bayeux, died 1830 in Paris. Self-taught artist. From 1784 studied under Regnault in Paris. Worked in Paris. First exhibited at the Salon in 1791, regularly from 1795 to 1827. Painted portraits.

LEGER, FERNAND

Born 1881 at Argentan, died 1955 at Gif-sur-Yvette. In 1901 entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Was influenced by Cezanne and Henri Rousseau. From 1910 was attracted by Cu-

bism, later became one of the founders of Futurism in painting. Produced pictures on leisure, labor and sporting themes. Worked extensively as a mural painter, draughtsman, ceramist and applied artist. Designed stage sets and decorations for public holidays. Visited Greece and the USA. 277Ч279

LEGRAND, LOUIS

Born 1863 at Dijon, died 1951 near Paris. Studied in Dijon, was influenced by F. Rops. Painted daily life and genre scenes, made lithographs. 191

LEHMANN, LEON

Born 1873 at Altkirch, died there 1953. Studied under G. Mo-reau at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Painted landscapes, still lifes, interior scenes and portraits.

LEMOINE, FRANQOIS

Born 1688 in Paris, died there 1737. Studied under L. Galloche, was influenced by Correggio and the Venetian masters of the early eighteenth century S. Ricci and A. Pellegrini. Worked in Paris. In 1723Ч24 visited Italy. From 1718 member of the Academy. Painted almost exclusively mythological, religious and allegorical scenes; did many decorations at Versailles. 50

LEPICIE, NICOLAS BERNARD

Born 1735 in Paris, died there 1784. Studied under his father, the engraver B. Lepicie, and C. Vanloo. Was influenced by Chardin. Worked in Paris. Member of the Academy from 1761. Painted genre scenes and pictures on religious and mythological subjects.

LE PRINCE, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1733 in Metz, died 1781 in Saint-Denis-du-Port. Pupil of F. Boucher and J. M. Vien. Worked in Paris and from 1757 to 1763 in Russia. Member of the Academy from 1766. Painted genre scenes, landscapes, portraits and decorative panels; also known for his drawings and engravings.

LESUEUR, BLAISE

Born 1716 in Paris, died 1783 in Berlin. Studied under J.-B. Van-loo. Worked in Paris, from 1748 in Berlin.

LESUEUR, EUSTACHE

Born 1617 in Paris, died there 1655. Studied under S. Vouet. Was influenced by N. Poussin. Worked in Paris. Member of the Academy from 1648. Painted pictures on religious and mythological themes.

LHERMITTE, LEON

Born 1844 at Mont-Saint-Pierre, died there 1925. Trained under Lecoq de Boisbaudran. Worked mainly in Paris. Painted genre scenes of peasant life and landscapes. One of the founders of the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts. 141

LHOTE, ANDRE

Born 1885 in Bordeaux, died 1962 in Paris. Trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Bordeaux. First studied sculpture, then painting. From 1908 lived in Paris. Was influenced by Cezanne and associated with the Cubists. Painted for the most part landscapes. Illustrated Claudel and Cocteau. Published a number of books on the theory of art, among them Traite du paysage, Corot and Seurai. Taught at various Paris academies. Visited Holland, Sweden, Belgium, Spain, Hungary and Morocco. 268

LOBRE, MAURICE

Born 1862 in Bordeaux, died 1951 in Paris. Studied under J.-L. Gerome and E. A. Carolus-Duran. Painted Versailles palace interiors, portraits and scenes from everyday life.

LOIR, LUIGI

Born 1845 in Goritz (Austria), died 1916 in Paris. Studied at the Parma Academy in 1853. Since 1863 lived in Paris. Landscape painter, stage designer, book illustrator, graphic artist and engraver.

LONGUET, FREDERIC

Born 1904 in Paris. Was a painter, watercolorist and graphic artist. Was influenced by A. Marquet. Painted views of port cities on the Seine and the Marne.

LORRAIN, CLAUDE (CLAUDE GELLEE)

Born 1600 at Chamagne (Lorraine), died 1682 in Rome. Painter, draughtsman and engraver. As a young boy went to live in Italy and there was trained under A. Tassi. Was influenced by P. Bril and A. Elsheimer. Worked in Rome. Painted a great number of landscapes. 7Ч9

LOUTHERBOURG (or LUTHERBOURG) THE YOUNGER, PHILIPPE JACOB

Born 1740 in Strasbourg, died 1812 in England. Studied under his father, Ph. J. Loutherbourg the Elder, C. Vanloo and Fr. J. Casanova. Worked in France, after 1771 in England. Member of the Paris Academy from 1767, of the Royal Academy in London from 1781. Painted landscapes, seascapes and battle scenes.

LURCAT, JEAN

Born 1892 at Bruyeres (Vosges), died 1966 at Saint-Paul-de-Vence. Studied under V. Prouvet at Nancy. Around 1912 settled in Paris. In 1914 collaborated with J.-R. Bloch, A. Luna-charsky, Ch. Vildrac and E. Faure in Les Feuilles de Mai, a review published in Switzerland. During World War I served at the front, was involved in anti-war propaganda activities and was consequently arrested in 1915. Was influenced by Cezanne. A Cubist at the start, he later was classed among the artists more or less related to Surrealism. Worked as a mural painter (frescoes of the Ecole Municipale at Villejuif), book illustrator and draughtsman (series of gouaches The Peasant War). From 1915 until the end of his life executed cartoons for gobelins and thus contributed to the revival of this traditional French art (cycle of tapestries The Song of the Universe). During World War II took part in the Resistance movement. In 1944 joined the French Communist Party. Was a member of the clandestine society New Russia. An exhibition of his works was held in Moscow in 1934. 275

MANET, EDOUARD

Born 1832 in Paris, died there 1883. From 1842 to 1848 studied at the College Rollin, in 1849 made a trip to Rio de Janeiro, from 1849 to 1856 attended the Atelier Couture in Paris. In 1856 visited Holland, Austria, Germany and Italy. Played an important part in the organization of the Salon des Refuses in 1863, where he exhibited six works, including Le Dejeuner sur I'herbe. Exercised a great influence on the development of French Impressionism. 147, 148

MANGUIN, HENRI CHARLES

Born 1874 in Paris, died 1943 in Saint-Tropez. Studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts from 1894 under G. Moreau. Painted still lifes and landscapes with female figures.

MARILHAT, PROSPER GEORGES ANTOINE

Born 1811 in Vertaizon (Puy-de-Dome), died 1847. Worked in Paris. Exhibited at the Salon from 1831 to 1844. In 1832Ч33 traveled in Syria, Palestine and Egypt. Painted landscapes.

MARQUET, ALBERT

Born 1875 at Bordeaux, died 1947 in Paris. In 1890 came to Paris to study at the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs from 1897; was in Moreau's class at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Exhibited at the Salon des Independents and the Salon d'Automne. For some time associated with the Fauves. Worked and lived in Paris. Visited England, Germany, Spain, Italy, Rumania, Norway, Holland, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and the Soviet Union (1934). Painted almost exclusively townscapes and views of sea and river ports. Produced drawings, watercolors and book illustrations. Designed ceramics. 241Ч245

MARTIN, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1659 in Paris, died there 1735. Pupil of J. Parrocel and Van der Meulen. Worked in Paris. Director of the Gobelin factory from 1690. Painted battle scenes.

MATISSE, HENRI

Born 1869 at Le Cateau (Nord), died 1954 at Nice. Trained under Bouguereau at the Academie Julian (1892), later studied at the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs, then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, in the class of Gustave Moreau (until 1898). Also studied at the Academie Carriere. First exhibited at the Salon de la Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts in 1895, at the Salon des Independents from 1901, and at the Salon d'Automne from 1903. Headed for some time the Fauve group. Visited London, Corsica, Spain, Morocco and Tahiti. In 1911 visited Russia. Settled at Nice in 1918. Painted still lifes, portraits, landscapes, figure compositions and interior scenes. Was active as a stage designer, draughtsman, book illustrator; made cartoons for tapestries and produced large decorative panels. His last major work was the design and decoration of the Chapel of Dominican nuns (Chapelle du Rosaire) at Vence. Executed decorative compositions out of colored paper cut-outs. 224Ч240

MAYER LA MARTINIERE, MARIE-FRANCOISE CONSTANCE

Born 1775 in Paris, died there 1821. Was influenced by J.-B. Greuze. From 1802 pupil and associate of P. P. Prud'hon. Painted pictures on religious, mythological and allegorical themes. Also worked in the pastel and miniature techniques.

MEISSONNIER, JEAN-LOUIS ERNEST

Born 1815 in Lyons, died 1891 in Paris. Studied under L. Co-gniet. Worked in Paris. Exhibited at the Salon from 1834. Visited Italy in 1835 and 1859. Member of the French Institute from 1861. Was a draughtsman, lithographer and book illustrator. Painted historical and battle scenes as well as small genre scenes with figures in 17th and 18th century dress.

MENARD, MARIE AUGUSTS EMILE RENE

Born 1862 in Paris, died there 1930. Studied under A. W. Bouguereau and P. Baudry, as well as at the Academie Julian. Was influenced by J. Bastien-Lepage. Painted mostly landscapes, sometimes with mythological figures.

MEULEN, ADAM FRANS VAN DER

Born 1632 at Brussels, died 1690 in Paris. Studied under P. Sny-ers in Brussels. Worked in Paris. From 1664 was Court Painter to Louis XIV. Painted almost exclusively battle scenes. 19

MICHELIN, JEAN

Born c. 1623 in Langres, died 1696 on the island of Jersey. Worked in Paris and provincial towns. Painted street scenes, emulating the Le Nain brothers.

MIGNARD, PIERRE

Born 1612 at Troyes, died 1695 in Paris. From 1628 lived in Paris where he was a pupil of S. Vouet. Worked in Paris and in Rome (1636Ч57). Director of the Academy of St Luke in Paris. From 1690 director of the Academy and Premier peintre du Roi. Designed a number of interiors at Versailles, Saint-Cloud and in Paris. Painted pictures on religious and historical subjects and portraits. 24

MILLET, JEAN-FRANQOIS (called FRANCISQUE)

Born 1642 at Antwerp, died 1679 in Paris. Landscape painter and engraver. Studied under L. Francken and A. Guenuls. From 1659 worked in Paris. 20

MILLET, JEAN-FRANCOIS

Born 1814 at Greville (Manche), died 1875 at Barbizon. Painter, draughtsman and engraver. In 1837 settled in Paris, where he studied under P. Delaroche. From 1840 exhibited at the Salon. Worked in Cherbourg, Le Havre and Paris. In 1849 moved to Barbizon and remained there for the rest of his life. Associated with the landscape painters of the Barbizon group. Painted scenes of peasant life, landscapes and portraits. 129, 130

MITOIRE, BENOIS CHARLES

Dates of birth and death unknown. Worked in Russia in the first half of the 19th century. From 1813 member of the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. Portrait painter.

MONET, CLAUDE

Born 1840 in Paris, died 1926 at Giverny. Spent his childhood at Le Havre, painted caricature portraits. From 1859 attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, then entered the Atelier Gleyre. From 1865 exhibited at the Salon, headed the Impressionist group in Paris and took part in its exhibitions of 1874, 1876, 1877, 1879 and 1882. Worked at Argenteuil (from 1874), at Giverny (from 1883 and later), in Normandy and Brittany; visited England (1871 and 1901Ч3) and Norway (1895). In addition to landscapes, painted portraits and still lifes. 149Ч157

MONNOYER, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1636 in Lille, died 1699 in London. Studied in Antwerp. Worked in France, from 1685 in England. Member of the Academy in Paris from 1665. Painted still lifes, mostly flower-pieces.

MONSIAUX, NICOLAS ANDRE

Born 1754 in Paris, died there 1837. Pupil of J. Peyron. From 1783 member of the Academy. Worked in Paris. Painted historical and mythological scenes. 83

MONTICELLI, ADOLPHE JOSEPH

Born 1824 at Marseilles, died there 1886. From 1841 to 1844 attended the Marseilles art school, in 1846 moved to Paris, where for some time he took lessons from Delaroche. Eagerly copied old and contemporary masters in the museums of Marseilles and Paris. From 1862 to 1870 worked in Paris and Romain-ville. Was influenced by Diaz de la Pena and Delacroix. Painted lanscapes, park scenes, still lifes and portraits. 146

MOREAU THE ELDER, LOUIS GABRIEL

Born 1739 in Paris, died there 1805. Painter, draughtsman and engraver. Studied under P. A. de Machy. From 1764 member of the Academy of St Luke in Paris. Worked in Paris. Painted landscapes. 71

MOSNIER, JEAN LAURENT

Born 1743 in Paris, died 1808 in St Petersburg. Studied at the Academy of St Luke in Paris. From 1788 member of the Academy. Worked in Paris. From 1791 lived in London and in Hamburg, from 1802 in St Petersburg where he was elected to the Academy of Arts. Portrait painter. 94

NATOIRE, CHARLES JOSEPH

Born 1700 at Nnnes, died 1777 at Castel-Gandolfo, Italy. Studied under L. Galloche and F. Lemoine. Worked in Rome (1723Ч 29) and in Paris. From 1734 member of the Academy. From 1751 to 1771 director of the French Academy in Rome. Painted pictures on mythological and historical subjects. Produced a number of decorations (Hotel de Rohan-Soubise, etc.) and several series of tapestry cartoons for the Beauvais and the Gobelin factories. 44

NATTIER, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1678 in Paris, died there 1726. Elder brother of the portraitist J. M. Nattier. Worked in Paris. Member of the Academy from 1712. Painted pictvires on historical and biblical themes.

NATTIER, JEAN -MARC

Born 1685 in Paris, died there 1766. Pupil of his father, M. Nattier, and of J. Jouvenet. From 1718 member of the Academy. Portrait painter. 42, 43

OUDRY, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1686 in Paris, died 1755 at Beauvais. Painter and draughtsman. Pupil of his father, Jacques Oudry, and of Largilliere. From 1719 member of Academy, from 1726 worked at the Beau-

vais tapestry manufactory, and from 1736 was chief inspector of the Gobelin factory. Painted hunting scenes, still lifes and portraits. 41

OZENFANT, AMEDEE

Born 1886 at Saint-Quentin, died 1966 in New York. After graduating from the La Tour art school at Saint-Quentin moved to Paris, where he worked at the Academie de la Palette under Ch. Cottet and J.-E. Blanche. Was influenced by the Cubists. Together with Le Corbusier invented Purism. Contributed to the magazines L'Elan (1915Ч17), L'Esprit Nouveau (1921Ч25), La Peinture Moderne (1925) and L'Art (1928). Was active as a painter and designed scenery. Worked extensively in the field of mural painting. Founded art academies in Paris, London, and New York. Since World War II lived in New York. Traveled widely, visiting England, Holland and Italy, and spent three years in Russia. 276

PATER, JEAN-BAPTISTE FRANCOIS

Born 1695 at Valenciennes, died 1736 in Paris. Studied under Watteau. Worked at Valenciennes and in Paris. From 1728 member of the Academy to which he was admitted as a painter of "modern motifs". Painted genre and battle scenes. 33

PERIGNON, ALEXIS JOSEPH

Born 1806 in Paris, died there 1882. Studied under his father, A. N. Perignon, and A. Gros. Visited St Petersburg in 1852Ч 53. Founded an art school and museum in Dijon.

PICASSO, PABLO RUIZ

Born 1881 at Malaga, in Spain, died 1973 at Mougins (Alpes Maritimes). First trained by his father, Jose Ruiz Blasco, a teacher of drawing, later attended the School of Fine Arts in Barcelona and the San Fernando Academy in Madrid. Came to Paris in 1900 and finally settled there in 1904. During the 1900s was influenced by Toulouse-Lautrec, painted cafe and racing scenes. His work of the Blue period (1901Ч4) is dominated by tragic themes; his Pink period (from 1905) yielded pictures of wandering actors, mountebanks and harlequins. From 1906 worked in the Cubist manner, becoming for some time the leader of Cubism. Between 1917 and 1921 designed decors for Diaghilev's Ballets russes. In the 1920s worked in the Classical and Expressionist manner. In 1937 created his famous monumental composition Guernica. In 1946 began to experiment with decorative ceramics at Vallauris. In 1947Ч50 produced a great number of lithographs and posters. In the 1950s created the series of paintings Algerian Women (1954), The Artist's Studio (1955Ч56) and Menins (1957). Illustrated Ovid's Metamorphoses, Balzac's Chef-d'ceuvre inconnu and Buf-fon's Natural History. Executed the well-known posters representing the dove of peace, painted murals at Antibes and the large canvases War and Peace for the Chapel at Vallauris. In 1944 joined the French Communist Party. Was awarded the International Peace Prize. 256Ч266

PIERRE, JEAN-BAPTISTE MARIE

Born 1713 in Paris, died there 1789. Studied under J. Natoire and F. de Troy. Was influenced by F. Boucher. Lived in Italy from 1735 to 1740. Worked in Paris. Member of the Academy from 1742, from 1770 its rector and Premier peintre du Roi. Painted pictures on biblical and mythological subjects. Also known for his engravings.

PISSARRO, CAMILLE

Born 1830 at St Thomas (Virgin Islands), died 1903 in Paris. From 1842 to 1847 was trained in Paris, then worked with the Danish painter F. Melbye in Venezuela. In 1855 returned to Paris and entered the Academie Suisse. Exhibited at the Salon des Refuses of 1863. Worked at Pontoise, Louveciennes, was influenced by Corot. In 1870 lived in England, where he met Monet. On his return to Paris took part in all Impressionist exhibitions. Painted with Cezanne at Pontoise. From 1884 on worked at Eragny. In 1886Ч88 was influenced by the Neo-Impressionists. Painted almost exclusively scenes of village life, rural landscapes and, later, views of Paris and Rouen, as well as portraits and still lifes. Produced etchings and lithographs. 160, 161

POUSSIN, NICOLAS

Born 1594 at Andelys (Normandy), died 1665 in Rome. Studied under Q. Varin and later under N. Jouvenet in Rouen. From 1612 worked in Paris. Among his teachers were G. Lal-lemand and the Fleming F. Elle. In 1624 settled in Rome. In 1640Ч42 lived in Paris and was made Premier peintre du Roi. In 1642 returned to Rome. Painted pictures on historical, mythological and religious subjects. 2Ч5

PRUD'HON, PIERRE PAUL

Born 1758 at Cluny, died 1823 in Paris. Painter and draughtsman. Studied at the Dijon Academy under F. Des Vosges. From 1778 pupil of J.-B. Pierre in Paris. From 1784 until 1789 lived in Italy. His art of the period was influenced by Leonardo and Correggio. From 1789 until 1794 resided in Paris. Between 1794 and 1796 lived in the province of Franche-Comte. In 1796 settled in Paris. Painted portraits as well as pictures on mythological, allegoric and religious subjects. He is also known as a decorative artist and book illustrator. 84

PUVIS DE CHAVANNES, PIERRE

Born 1824 at Lyons, died 1898 in Paris. First studied painting under Scheffer, spent some time in Italy and then frequented for a short period the studios of Couture and Delacroix. On his return from Italy worked chiefly as a mural painter in the manner of the Italian primitivists. Executed mural decorations for the Pantheon, the Sorbonne and the H6tel de Ville in Paris, as well as for a number of public buildings at Amiens, Lyons, Marseilles, Poitiers, Rouen and Boston. 212

PUY, JEAN

Born 1876 at Roanne, died there 1960. Studied in Lyons under L. Toll and later (1898) in Paris under J.-P. Laurens and E. Car-riere. Painted landscapes arid interior scenes.

QUILLARD, ANTOINE

Born around 1704 in Paris, died 1733 in Lisbon. Painter and engraver. Pupil of the Academy, he was strongly influenced by Watteau. Worked in Paris and in Lisbon. From 1725 was Court Painter to John V of Portugal. Painted religious and mythological scenes, later fetes galantes, 32

RAFFAELLI, JEAN-FRANCOIS

Born 1850 in Paris, died there 1924. Studied under J.-L. Ge-rome, was influenced by C. Monet. Painted mostly townscapes.

RAOUX, JEAN

Born 1677 at Montpellier, died 1734 in Paris. Pupil of A. Ranc and Bon Boullogne. Worked in Paris and in Italy (1704Ч14). From 1717 member of the Academy. In 1720Ч21 visited London. Painted genre and mythological scenes and portraits. 38, 39

REDON, ODILON

Born 1840 in Bordeaux, died 1916 in Paris. Studied under Ge-rome in Paris; R. Bresdin in Bordeaux introduced him to engraving. Was influenced by Moreau. Fantin-Latour advised him to take up lithography. Visited Belgium, Italy, Holland and Spain. In addition to paintings, produced many pastels, lithographs and a number of cartoons for tapestries. 210

REGNAULT, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1754 in Paris, died there 1829. Studied under J. Bardin and B. Lepicie. Lived in Italy from 1771 to 1775, a year later was sent there again by the Academy. Worked in Paris. Exhibited at the Salon from 1783 to 1809. Member of the Academy from 1783, of the French Institute from 1795. Painted pictures on biblical and mythological themes. Also known for his engravings.

RENOIR, PIERRE AUGUSTE

Born 1841 at Limoges, died 1919 at Cagnes-sur-Mer. At sixteen painted flowers and embellishments in the Louis XVI style

on porcelain; decorated fans and blinds. In 1862 entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where at the Atelier Gleyre he met Sis-ley, Frederic Bazille and Monet. From 1864 onwards exhibited at the Salon almost annually. Took part in the first Impressionist exhibition. During the early period of his artistic career came under the influence of Diaz de la Pena, Courbet and Delacroix. From 1872 was influenced by Monet and the Impressionists. In 1881 visited Italy. By 1883 had departed from the principles of pure Impressionism; under the influence of Ingres became attracted to drawing and adopted a more academic manner of painting. In 1890 returned to his previous, freer technique. Afrer visiting Algeria, Spain, Holland, England and Germany, settled at Cagnes in 1906. Painted genre scenes, portraits, nudes and landscapes. Worked as a sculptor and engraver. 164Ч168

RESTOUT, JEAN-PIERRE

Born 1692 in Rouen, died 1768 in Paris. Pupil of J. Jouvenet. Worked in Paris. Member of the Academy from 1720, director from 1760. Painted canvases on biblical and mythological themes.

RICHARD, FLEURY FRANQOIS

Born 1777 in Lyons, died there 1852. Pupil of L. David. Worked in Lyons. Exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1801 to 1839. Painted genre scenes peopled by historic personages.

RIESENER, HENRI FRANQOIS

Born 1767 in Paris, died there 1828. Pupil of F. A. Vincent and L. David. Worked in Paris. From 1816 to 1823 lived in Warsaw, St Petersburg and Moscow. Portrait painter, also known as a miniaturist.

RIGAUD, HYACINTHE

Born 1659 at Perpignan, died 1743 in Paris. Pupil of the Academy from 1682, its member from 1700, its rector and director from 1733. Worked in Paris. Painted portraits. 30

RIVIERE, Mile

Mile Riviere's first name and dates of her birth and death are unknown. Worked in Paris in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. From 1806 to 1819 exhibited at the Salon. Painted portraits and genre scenes. 92

ROBERT, HUBERT

Born 1733 in Paris, died there 1808. Painter and draughtsman. Pupil of Ch. Natoire. Worked in Italy (1754Ч65) and in Paris. From 1767 member of the Academy. Painted decorative landscapes, ruins and views of classical architecture. 74Ч77

ROBERT, LEOPOLD LOUIS

Born 1794 in Chaux-de-Fonds (Neuchatel), died 1835 in Venice. Lived in Paris from 1810 to 1816, studying there under L. David, A. Gros and Ch. Girardet. From 1818 to 1823 worked in Rome, later in Venice. Painted mostly landscapes and scenes from the life of Italian peasants; also known for his engravings and lithographs.

ROBILLARD, HIPPOLYTE

Active in the mid-19th century. Exhibited at the Salon from 1831 to 1841. From 1842 to 1855 lived in Russia. Painted in oils and pastels.

ROUAULT, GEORGES

Born 1871 in Paris, died there 1958. As a youth, he was apprenticed to a maker of stained glass and attended evening classes at the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs under Delaunay and Moreau (1892Ч94). Was active as a painter, engraver, book illustrator (Baudelaire, Rabelais), monumental artist (stained-glass windows for the church of Plateau d'Assy) and stage designer (decor and costume designs for Diaghilev's production of Le Fils prodigue). Executed tapestry cartoons. Most of his works are scenes from the life of itinerant actors and clowns; he also painted genre and religious pictures. 251

ROUSSEAU, HENRI

Born 1844 at Laval (Mayenne), died 1910 in Paris. Upon graduating from a lycee at Laval, probably did his military service in a brass band during the Mexican campaign in 1861Ч67, and was a sergeant in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870Ч71. Worked in the Paris customs office, hence his nickname Le Douanier. At the age of forty left his job and founded an academy (Association Philotechnique) where he taught painting and music. From 1885 exhibited at the Salon des Independents, from 1905 at the Salon d'Automne. A self-taught artist, he painted genre and fantastic scenes, exotic landscapes, views of Paris suburbs and portraits. 221Ч223

ROUSSEAU, THEODORE

Born 1812 in Paris, died 1867 at Barbizon. Pupil of Ch. Re-mond and Guillon-Lethiere. Worked in Paris, in its suburbs and in the provinces of France. In 1847 settled at Barbizon, a village near Paris. One of the founders and main figures of the Barbizon School. 114, 11$

ROUSSEL, KER XAVIER

Born 1867 in Lorry-les-Metz, died 1944 in L'Etang-la-Ville. From 1888 to 1890 studied at the Academic Julian and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In 1908 taught at the Academie Ranson. Painted landscapes, was also active as a decorator, pastelist, graphic artist and lithographer.

SANTERRE, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1657 in Magny-en-Vexin, died 1717 in Paris. Pupil of F. Lemaire and Bon Boulogne. Worked in Paris. Member of the Academy from 1704. Portrait painter.

SCHEFFER, ARY

Born 1795 in Dordrecht, died 1858 in Argenteuil. Came to Paris in 1812. Studied under P. N. Guerin. Was influenced by E. Delacroix. Exhibited at the Salon from 1812. Painted portraits and canvases on historical and literary subjects.

SIGNAC, PAUL

Born 1863 in Paris, died there 1935. A pupil of Bing, in the beginning of his career he was influenced by the Impressionists. Follower of Seurat. From 1882 the most vocal theorist of Neo-Impressionism; his book D'Eugene Delacroix au Neo-Impresslonnlsme (1899) was the textbook of this movement. Exhibited in 1884 at the first Salon des Artistes Independents, then in 1886 at the eighth and last exhibition of Impressionists. Concentrated above all on landscapes. 204, 205

SIMON, LUCIEN

Born 1861 in Paris, died there 1945. Studied under J. Didier, then at the Academie Julian and under T. Robert-Fleury. Painted portraits and scenes from the life of Breton fishermen.

SISLEY, ALFRED

Born 1839 in Paris, died 1899 at Moret-sur-Loing. Entered the Atelier Gleyre in Paris in 1862 and there met Monet, Renoir and Bazille. In the beginning of his career was influenced by Corot, Courbet and Daubigny. Worked at Marlotte (1866), Hon-fleur (1867), Bougival and Louveciennes. Between 1870 and 1875 painted at Marly. In 1875Ч79 lived at Sevres, in 1882 settled at Moret-sur-Loing. Visited England in 1857, 1874 and 1897. Took part in the Impressionist exhibitions of 1874, 1876, 1877 and 1882. Painted almost exclusively landscapes. J58, 159

STEINLEN, THEOPHILE

Born 1859 at Lausanne, died 1923 in Paris. From 1878 on lived in Paris, in 1901 became a French subject. His artistic legacy includes drawings, lithographs, posters, book illustrations and paintings. Contributed to several progressive magazines, newspapers and satirical publications. Derived his subjects from the life of Parisian streets as well as from the life and struggle of the working class. 203

SUBLEYRAS, PIERRE

Born 1699 at Saint-Gilles-du-Gard (Languedoc), died 1749 in Rome. Studied under his father, M. Subleyras, and later, in Toulouse, under A. Rivalz. From 1726 lived in Paris, from 1728 in Rome. Painted religious scenes and portraits. 56

SURVAGE (STURZWAGE), LEOPOLD

Born 1879 in Moscow, died 1968 in Paris. Studied at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Moscow under L. Pasternak and K. Korovin. In 1908 moved to Paris, where he shared a studio with Matisse. Took part in Cubist exhibitions, also did fresco painting.

SWEBACH, JACQUES-FRANCOIS-JOS^PH

Born 1769 at Metz, died 1823 in Paris. Painter, engraver, lithographer and porcelain painter. Pupil of M. Duplessis. From 1802 to 1813 worked for the Sevres porcelain factory; from

1815 to 1820 for the Imperial porcelain factory in St Petersburg. Painted landscapes, genre scenes and pictures on historical subjects. 90

TARAVAL, HUGUES

Born 1729 in Paris, died there 1785. From 1732 to 1750 lived in Sweden. Pupil of his father, Guillaume Taraval, with whom he painted murals in the royal palace in Stockholm. In 1750 moved to Paris and there studied under J.-B. Pierre. From 1769 member of the Academy in Paris, from 1775 of the Academy in Stockholm. From 1783 inspector of the Gobelin factory. Painted pictures on mythological and allegorical subjects, worked extensively on decorative paintings. 53

TASLITZKY, BORIS

Born 1911 in Russia, lives and works in Paris. Studied under J. Lipchitz, then in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Studied carpet design under J. Lurcat. Painter and graphic artist.

TAUNAY, NICOLAS ANTOINE

Born 1755 in Paris, died there 1830. Pupil of N. B. Lepicie, F. Casanova and N. Brun. Worked in Paris. From 1784 to 1787 was in Italy. From 1795 member of the French Institute. From

1816 to 1824 lived in Brazil where he established the Academy of Arts in Rio de Janeiro. Painted landscapes, genre, battle and mythological scenes. 87

TOCQUE, LOUIS

Born 1696 in Paris, died there 1772. Studied under J. M. Nattier. Worked in Paris. From 1734 member of the Academy. Between 1756 and 1758 stayed in St Petersburg where he painted a portrait of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. In 1758Ч59 worked in Copenhagen. Portrait painter. 55

TOULOUSE-LAUTREC, HENRI DE

Born 1864 at Albi (Tarn), died 1901 at the Chateau de Mal-rome (Gironde). A pupil of Rene Princeteau and John Lewis Brown. In 1882 entered the studio of Bonnat in Paris, later studied under Cormon. Was influenced by Degas and the Impressionists. Worked as a painter and draughtsman, left a large number of posters, illustrations and lithographs. Found inspiration in the night life of Paris, in dance-halls, cabarets and circuses; painted portraits of artists and writers. 190

TOURNIERES, ROBERT

Born 1667 at Caen, died there 1752. Studied under Bon Boulogne. Worked in Paris. From 1702 member of the Academy. Painted portraits, mythological and genre scenes. 11

TROY, FRANQOIS DE

Born 1645 at Toulouse, died 1730 in Paris. In his youth went to live in Paris where his teachers were N. Loir and C. Le-fevre. From 1674 member of the Academy, from 1708 its director. Painter of historical subjects and portraits. 22

TROY, JEAN FRANCOIS DE

Born 1679 in Paris, died 1752 in Rome. Studied under his father, Fran9ois de Troy. Worked in Paris and from 1699 in

Italy. From 1708 member of the Academy, from 1738 director of the French Academy in Rome. Painted mythological, biblical and genre scenes as well as portraits. Worked for the Gobelin factory. 21

TROYON, CONSTANT

Born 1810 at Sevres, died 1865 in Paris. Began his career as a porcelain painter at the Sevres porcelain factory, later studied drawing under A. Poupart. From 1833 exhibited at the Salon. Visited Holland and Belgium in 1847Ч48, England in 1853. From the 1840s lived at Barbizon where he worked with Dupre, Rousseau and other painters of the Barbizon group. Painted landscapes and animal scenes. 722Ч124

UTRILLO, MAURICE

Born 1883 in Paris, died 1955 at Dax (in the Landes). A pupil of his mother, Suzanne Valadon, he received no academic artistic training. Was influenced by Monticelli and the Impressionists. His paintings are almost all views of Paris, sometimes done from picture postcards. Painter, lithographer and etcher. In 1926 produced sets and costume designs for Diaghilev's Ballets russes. 255

VALENTIN DE BOULOGNE

Born 1594 at Coulommiers, died 1632 in Rome. From 1614 lived and worked in Italy and there was strongly influenced by Ca-ravaggio. Painted pictures on religious and genre subjects. /

VALTAT, LOUIS

Born 1869 at Dieppe, died 1952 in Paris. From 1888 studied at the Academie Julian, in 1889 was a pupil in the studio of Moreau at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Was influenced by Van Gogh and the Neo-Impressionists. From 1904 exhibited with the future Fauves. Painted landscapes and still lifes, executed stage designs and made ceramics. Traveled widely in France, visited Spain, Italy and Algeria. 247, 248

VAN DONGEN, KEES

Born 1877 at Delfshaven, near Rotterdam, died 1968 at Monte Carlo. A Dutchman by birth, he lived and worked in Paris from 1897. Was granted French citizenship in 1929. At first contributed drawings to satirical magazines, was influenced by Steinlen, then took to painting. Before 1905 worked in the Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist manner, from 1905 associated with the Fauves. Painted scenes from the life of actresses, dancers, singers and models. Later on produced a number of portraits of statesmen, writers and journalists. Illustrated the works of Margueritte, Kipling, Choderlos de Laclos. Visited Morocco, Egypt and Spain. 253, 254

VAN GOGH, VINCENT

Born 1853 in Groot-Zundert in the Netherlands, died 1890 at Auvers-sur-Oise. An assistant in a bookshop, then a teacher in London, he became a voluntary evangelist in the coal mines of the Borinage district in Belgium. Began work as a painter after having taken first lessons from Anton Mauve in The Hague. From 1886 attended the Atelier Cormon in Paris. Was influenced by the Impressionists and the Neo-Impressionists. In 1888 worked at Aries, in 1889 at Saint-Remy-de-Provence, in 1890 at Auvers-sur-Oise. Under the strain of mental disease committed suicide. First worked in the manner of "pure old Dutch painting" and painted peasants, miners and weavers, the interiors of working-class houses, and still lifes. Coming to France, he created portraits, landscapes and still lifes notable for their highly expressive artistic form. 185Ч189

VANLOO, CARLE

Born 1705 at Nice, died 1765 in Paris. Pupil of his brother, J.-B. Vanloo, and, later, of the sculptor P. Legros and of B. Louti in Paris. Worked in Rome (1727Ч34) and in Paris. From 1735 member of the Academy, from 1763 its director. Painted pictures on religious and mythological subjects, portraits and scenes of society life. Author of several monumental murals and of cartoons for the Gobelin factory. 54

VANLOO, LOUIS MICHEL

Born 1707 in Toulon, died 1771 in Paris. Pupil of his father, J.-B. Vanloo. From 1727 to 1732 lived in Rome; from 1736 to 1753 was Court Painter to Philip V of Spain. 63

VERNET, ANTOINE FRANCOIS

Born 1730 in Avignon, died 1779 in Paris. Pupil and emulator of his brother Claude Joseph Vernet. Worked in Paris. Painted landscapes.

VERNET, JOSEPH

Born 1714 at Avignon, died 1789 in Paris. Was trained under his father, Antoine Vernet, and the seascape painters B. For-gioni and A. Manglard. From 1734 to 1753 worked in Italy. Between 1754 and 1762, while working on the Ports of France series commissioned by Louis XV, he visited Toulon, Bordeaux, Antibes, La Rochelle and other French towns. From 1762 lived in Paris. Painted seascapes. 59Ч61

VERNET, HORACE

Born 1789 in Paris, died there 1863. Painter and lithographer. Pupil of his father C. Vernet and of F. A. Vincent. Worked in Paris and in Rome. From 1829 to 1835 director of the French Academy in Rome. In 1836 and 1842Ч43 visited St Petersburg. Painted battle and historical scenes and portraits. 106

VEYRASSAT, JULES JACQUES

Born 1828 in Paris, died there 1893. Studied with Ch. T. Frere, F. Besson and Ch. F. Daubigny. Was influenced by the Barbizon School. Landscape and animal painter.

VIGEE-LEBRUN, ELISABETH LOUISE

Born 1755 in Paris, died there 1842. Pupil of her father, L. Vi-gee, and of G. Briard and F. Doyen; was influenced by Greuze. From 1783 member of the Academy. Worked in Paris until 1789, when she left France for Italy and Vienna. From 1795 to 1801 lived in St Petersburg (member of the St Petersburg Academy from 1800), subsequently visited England, Holland and Sweden. In 1809 returned to France. Painted portraits. 85

VINCENT, FRANCOIS ANDRE

Born 1746 in Paris, died there 1816. Pupil of J.-M. Vien. Lived in Rome from 1767 to 1770. Worked in Paris, exhibited at the Salon from 1777 to 1801. Member of the Academy from 1782. Painted portraits and pictures on historical and mythological themes.

VLAMINCK, MAURICE DE

Born 1876 in Paris, died 1958 at Rueil-la-Gadeliere. A self-taught artist. Shared a studio with Derain at Chatou (1903Ч7). From 1904 exhibited at the Salon des Independants. One of the first Fauves who exhibited at the Salon d'Automne in 1905. Painted almost exclusively landscapes and portraits, produced drawings, book illustrations, ceramics and stage designs, made cartoons for tapestries. 249, 250

VOILLE, JEAN-LOUIS

Born 1744 in Paris, died after 1803. Pupil of Drouais the Younger. From 1770 worked in St Petersburg. Painted portraits. 80

VOLLON, ANTOINE

Born 1833 at Lyons, died 1900 in Paris. From 1851 studied under Vibert at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyons; from 1858 exhibited at Lyons; from 1864 at the Salon in Paris. Painted mainly genre scenes and still lifes. 144

VOUET, SIMON

Born 1590 in Paris, died there 1649. Studied under his father, L. Vouet. Worked in London in his early youth, visited Constantinople in 1611Ч12. From 1614 to 1627 lived in Italy where he fell under the influence of Caravaggio and the Bolognese

school. In 1627 returned to Paris to become Court Painter to Louis XIII. Painted pictures on religious, mythological and allegorical themes, and also large decorative pieces. 6

VUILLARD, EDOUARD

Born 1868 at Cuiseaux (Saone-et-Loire), died 1940 at La Baule (Loiret). Trained in the Atelier Maillart (1887), the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Gerome (1888) and later at the Academie Julian. Joined up with Bonnard and Roussel who formed the "Nabi" group. In 1894 painted the series of panels The Gardens of Paris. In 1913 produced the decorative panels for the Theatre de la Comedie des Champs-Elysees (with Bonnard), in 1936 for the building of the League of Nations in Geneva (with Roussel and Denis), and in 1937 for the Palais de Chaillot in Paris (with Roussel and Bonnard). Visited Italy, Switzerland, Holland and Spain. Lived and worked mainly in Paris, spent long periods in Normandy and Brittany. Was active as a painter, lithographer and stage designer. 213, 214

WATELET, LOUIS ETIENNE

Born 1780 in Paris, died there 1866. Worked in Paris. Exhibited at the Salon from 1800 to 1857. Visited Belgium, the Tyrol and Italy. Landscape painter, also known as a lithographer.

WATELIN, LOUIS FRANCOIS VICTOR

Born 1835 in Paris, died there 1907. Worked in Paris. Exhibited at the Salon from 1870. Member of the Societe des Artistes Franijais. Landscape painter.

WATTEAU, ANTOINE

Born 1684 at Valenciennes, died 1721 in Paris. Painter, engraver and draughtsman. In 1702 went to Paris and studied with C. Gillot and C. Audran. Worked in Paris. During 1709Ч 10 re-visited Valenciennes. From 1717 member of the Academy. In 1720 visited England. Painter of battle and theatrical scenes, fetes galantes, genre pictures and portraits. 27, 28

WICAR, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Born 1762 in Lille, died 1834 in Rome. Studied at the school of drawing in Lille, from 1776 in Paris under L. David, with whom he went to Italy in 1785, staying there until 1794. In 1796 was sent to Italy to select works of art to be brought to France. Lived in Rome since 1805. Painted pictures on historical themes and portraits.

WILLE, PIERRE ALEXANDRE

Born 1748 in Paris, died there 1821. Studied under his father, G. Wille, and J.-B. Greuze. Worked in Paris. Exhibited at the Salon from 1775 to 1819. Painted pictures of everyday life.

ZAMBAUX, ROBERT

Date of his birth unknown; worked in the 1950s. Painted pictures of everyday life.

ZIEM, FELIX PHILIBERT

Born 1821 in Beaune, died 1911 in Paris. Studied at the Architectural School in Dijon. Visited Turkey and Russia in 1841Ч43. Worked in Paris, Nice and Italy. Landscape painter.

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