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CLAUDE LORRAIN (CLAUDE GELLEE). 1600-1682

7 THE RAPE OF EUROPA. 1655

Oil on canvas. 100 X 137 cm. Inv. No 916 Signed and dated lower right: Claude G. Romae J655

The subject is taken from Ovid's Metamorphoses (2: 835—877). Together with its pendant, The Battle on the Bridge, the picture was painted in 1655 on the order of Cardinal Fabio Chigi (1599—1667), who had become Pope Alexander VII by the time of its completion. It remained the property of the Pope's descendants until 1798. Reproduced by the author in his series of drawings known as Liber Verltatis under No 136. A preliminary drawing for the picture was in the Print Room of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum in Berlin until 1941. There are three main variants of the picture, the best known of which is now in Buckingham Palace in London. This variant, dated 1667, is very close to the one owned by the Pushkin Museum.

Provenance: 1798—1924 The Yusupovs Collection, Ar-khangelskoye (near Moscow) and St. Petersburg — Petrograd; 1924—27 The Hermitage, Leningrad; since 1927 The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow

Exhibitions: 1908 St Petersburg; 1955 Moscow, Cat., p. 42; 1956 Leningrad, Cat., p. 36

Bibliography: Кат. ГМИИ 1948, p. 47; Кат. ГМИИ 1957, p. 82, ill.; Кат. ГМИИ 1961, p. 112, ill.; Mu-see Youssoupoff 1839, No 26; Waagen 1864, p. 417; Pattison 1884, PP. 71, 94, 190, 191, 216, 227, 276, 306; А. Прахов 1901, p. 69, ill. 58; А. Прахов 1907, pp. 133, 134, ill. 74; Бенуа 1908, p. 722; Anciennes ecoles de peinture 1910, pp. 108—109; Бенуа 1912, p. 196; Кат. Юсуповской галереи 1920, No 86; W. Friedlaender, Claude Lorrain, Berlin, 1921, pp. 8, 241; Эрнст 1924, pp. 2—3, ill.; Dimier 1926—27, vol. 1, p. 78, ill.; S. Ernst, "Les Tableaux de Claude Lorrain dans les collections Youssoupoff et Stroganoff", Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 2, 1929, pp. 246, 249, ill.; Reau 1929, No 587; P. Courthion, Claude Gellee dit Le Lorrain, Paris, 1932, p. 77, ill.; M. Rothlisberger, "Les Pendants dans 1'oeuvre de Claude Lorrain", Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 51, 1958, p. 221; Rothlisberger 1961, pp. 24, 25, 276, 325—328; Прокофьев 1962, ill. 29; Musee de Moscou 1963, p. 136, ill.; ГМИИ 1966, No 56; Antonova 1977, No 57

7 THE RAPE OF EUROPA. 1655
7 THE RAPE OF EUROPA. 1655

8 THE BATTLE ON THE BRIDGE. 1655

Oil on canvas. 100 X 137 cm. Inv. No 1283 Signed and dated lower right: Claudia G V Romae 1655

Together with The Rape of Europa this picture was commissioned by Cardinal Chigi. Some scholars interpreted the subject as The Battle between Maxentius and Constantine. Reproduced in the Liber Veritatis under No 137, A preliminary drawing was in the Print Room of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum in Berlin until 1941. There is an earlier variant of the picture in the Liber Veritatis (No 26), and an exact replica made by the author (the Virginia Museum, Richmond, USA). Provenance: 1798—1924 The Yusupovs Collection, Arkhangelskoye (near Moscow) and St Petersburg — Petrograd; 1924—27 The Hermitage, Leningrad; since 1927 The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow

Exhibitions: 1908 St Petersburg, Cat. 279; 1955 Moscow, Cat., p. 42; 1956 Leningrad, Cat., p. 35 Bibliography: Кат. ГМИИ 1948, p. 47; Кат. ГМИИ 1957, p. 82; Кат. ГМИИ 1961, p. 112; Smith 1837, No 137; Musee Youssoupoff 1839, No 8; Waagen 1864, p. 47;

Pattison 1884, pp. 71, 72, 190, 218, 227; А. Прахов 1901, p. 57, ill. 46; А. Прахов 1907, pp. 134, 135, ill. 75; Бенуа 1908, p. 722; Anciennes ecoles de peinture 1910, pp. 108-^109; Бенуа 1912, p. 196, ill.; Кат. Юсу-повской галереи 1920, No 79; W. Friedlaender, Claude Lorrain, Berlin, 1921, p. 241; Эрнст 1924, p. 4, ill.; S.Ernst, "Les Tableaux de Claude Lorrain dans les collections Youssoupoff et Stroganoff", Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 2, 1929, p. 247, ill.; Reau 1929, No 588; M. Rothlisberger, "Les Pendants dans 1'ceuvre de Claude Lorrain", Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 51, 1958, p. 221; Rothlisberger 1961, pp. 146, 326, 329—330

8 THE BATTLE ON THE BRIDGE. 1655
8 THE BATTLE ON THE BRIDGE. 1655

9 LANDSCAPE WITH APOLLO AND MARSYAS

Oil on canvas. 101 X 133 cm. Inv. No 915

The subject is taken from Ovid's Metamorphoses (6: 382—400). The picture was painted for Dr Perroche around 1639—40. Reproduced in the Liber Veritatis. A similar composition is in a private collection in England.

Provenance: until 1772 The Collection of L. A.Crozat, Baron de Thiers, Paris; 1772—1924 The Hermitage, St Petersburg — Petrograd; since 1924 The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow

Exhibition: 1972 Dresden, Cat. 24

Bibliography: Кат. ГМИИ 1948, p. 46; Кат. ГМИИ 1957, p. 82; Кат. ГМИИ 1961, p. 113; Cat. Crozat 1755, p. 9; D'Argenville, Voyage pittoresque de Paris, Paris, 1757, p. 120; Cat. Ermitage 1774, No 1133; Smith 1837, No 45; Cat. Ermitage 1863, No 1438; Waagen 1864, p. 291; Pattison 1884, pp. 211, 215, 246; Dimier 1926—27, vol. 1, p. 76, ill.; Reau 1929, No 589; P. Courthion, Claude Gellee dlt Le Lorrain, Paris, 1932, ill.; Rothlisberger 1961, pp. 178, 255, 256; Stuffmann 1968, p. 131, No 150

9 LANDSCAPE WITH APOLLO AND MARSYAS
9 LANDSCAPE WITH APOLLO AND MARSYAS

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